Two of the structures at Goolman were oblong or oval. They had floor areas of about 120 square feet. Both were much smaller than domestic structures at contemporary Fort Ancient villages. The wall framework, made from small, vertically-set posts chinked with rock, likely was covered with bark. Each had a central hearth, but investigators found little else inside. This suggested that the residents used these structures primarily for sleeping.
The largest structure stood at the center of the camp. It was rectangular. Its walls were made of wider, deeply set posts supported by many limestone rocks. This structure's framework, too, likely was covered with bark. Floor space was estimated at 225 square feet. This structure had a hearth, but also an abundance of artifacts – lithics, ceramics, and food refuse – suggesting it was where residents carried out their daily activities. Archaeologists interpreted it as a communal structure, based on its size relative to the others, and on the large quantities of artifacts found inside. Life at Goolman revolved around day-to-day domestic chores, with an emphasis on hunting, butchering, and preparing hides, particularly deer; processing hickory nuts and walnuts; and making chipped stone tools from local chert (flint) sources.